During the past four years, significant R&D effort has been devoted to developing and offering a set of RF solutions to support recent trends in emission monitoring for high power (base station) and low power (chipset) OEMs. OEMs make emission monitoring measurements during product development and during certification prior to deployment. This Low-PIM solutions page presents an overview of K&L and Dow-Key product support for broadband emission monitoring, general information on K&L's low-PIM capabilities (including block diagrams, pictures, and test results), and links to low-PIM parts and part specifications, and is intended as a companion to our LTE Products section and our Test Set Solutions products page.
Articles, Webinars, and Conference Presentations
Antenna Systems & Technology, Fall 2015
See Rafi Hershtig's article "Tunable and Fixed Filtering Solutions Enhance Dynamic Range of 4G-LTE Measurements" in the Fall 2015 issue of Antenna Systems & Technology. (Can also be found as a November 2015 entry under Featured Articles.)
Antenna Systems 2015, 11/05/15 - Multi-Band Low PIM (168 dBc) Test Solutions For 4G LTE
Rafi Hershtig presented "Multi-Band Low PIM (168 dBc) Test Solutions For 4G LTE" at Antenna Systems 2015. See the conference program for the abstract. A PDF of his presentation will be made available here shortly. The magazine article above contains related content.
MWJ Webinar, 09/12/13 - Filtering Modules for IMD Measurements over 4G-LTE Bands
View this webinar by presenter Rafi Hershtig on best practices and latest products for accurate IMD measurements (including triple beat testing) over 4G-LTE bands. K&L and sister company Dow-Key supply custom test solutions for emissions monitoring, and this presentation (originally offered as part of a Microwave Journal webinar series) provides an overview of some of the industry's most critical testing requirements and cost-effective, high-performance filter-based solutions for meeting them.
MPD Articles, June and July 2013
K&L Microwave offers a variety of custom products for designing LTE test setups. Rafi Hershtig surveys the flexibility and performance advantages associated with filtering solutions in the June and July Feature Articles of Microwave Product Digest. Click here for the June article, here for the July article, and here for the main MPD web site.
MWJ Article, June 2011
K&L Microwave's Low PIM products for broadband emission monitoring are featured in the Most Valuable Product section of the June 2011 issue of Microwave Journal. The article is "Targeting PIM Testing" on page 36. Click here for the article and here for the main Microwave Journal web site.
Emission Monitoring Overview
Emission monitoring is critically important to OEMs for a variety of reasons. Considerations pushing technical capabilities and cost-effectiveness in the current base station and chipset marketplaces include:
- separation of IM products from carriers while operating at full power,
- protecting devices from energy bounce-back,
- broad-band spurious emission,
- TX/RX measurement, and
- interferer/interference tests, including interactions with satellite communication (GPS, Inmarsat, etc.).
For effective monitoring, high-power base station OEMs and low-power chipset OEMs require expensive test boxes operating in the 3GPP and LTE bands, respectively. Typical base station requirements are 100W CW, 1KW Peak, and low PIM of 156dBc for 2x+43dBm. Typical chipset requirements are 0.5W CW and IM of 100dBc for 2x+33dBm.
K&L's development of specialized low-PIM equipment, coupled with products from K&L's CMP sister company Dow-Key Microwave, provides for a cost-effective alternative to using arrays of PIM analyzers for emission monitoring. See slides 8 through 17 in the accompanying presentation.
- High-Power Broadband Emission Monitoring (Bandpass/Bandstop and Highpass/Lowpass Diplexers)
- Low-Power Broadband Emission Monitoring (Bandpass/Bandstop, Notch, and Highpass)
- DAS Brochure: Low-PIM AMPS TX/RX Duplexers
- 3GPP Triplexers XLS Format
- 3GPP Triplexers PDF Format
- Dow-Key Products for Emission Monitoring (Software-Controlled Test Boxes)[Presentation Slides 15-17]